1a. What is one phenotypic trait that is the same in Mom, Dad and baby dragon?

1a. What is one phenotypic trait that is the same in Mom, Dad and baby dragon?

1b. Draw a Punnett square to show how your baby dragon inherited the genes that resulted in this trait (in 1a). In the Punnett square, circle the genotype of your baby dragon. 1

c. Suppose that Mom and Dad had a second baby. Would the second baby necessarily have this same trait? Explain why or why not.

2a. Does your baby dragon have exactly the same phenotypic traits as his or her same-sex parent?

2b. If not, choose one trait that differs between the baby and the same-sex parent, and explain the genetic reason for this difference.

3a. What is Mendel’s Law of Segregation?

3b. Explain how Mendel’s Law of Segregation is simulated by dropping a Popsicle stick and writing the letters on the side facing up in the egg or sperm column of the charts on page 4.

3c. Use an example from this simulation to demonstrate how segregation of two alleles during meiosis, followed by fertilization, can result in a baby that has a new phenotypic trait that is not observed in either parent.

4a. What is Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment?

4b. Explain how Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment is simulated by dropping the green and yellow autosome Popsicle sticks.

4c. Explain why the Law of Independent Assortment does not apply to genes that are close together on the same chromosome.

5. This simulation can be thought of as a simplified model of how meiosis and fertilization result in inheritance. Like all models, this simulation is not a completely accurate model of biological reality. For example, in this simulation a gamete receives all of the genes on one chromosome from each homologous pair and none of the genes on the other homologous chromosome. Explain why this is not an accurate model of biological reality. Explain how meiosis can result in a chromosome in the gamete that has parts of both chromosomes in a parent’s pair of homologous chromosomes.

6a. For the mom and dad in the simulation, will all of their daughters have horns? Explain why or why not.

6b. For this couple, will all of their sons have horns? Explain why or why not.

6c. Which sex will be more likely to have horns. How might horns be an advantage 6 for this sex? [Be creative in your answer.]

7. Use the decoding chart on page 3 to complete the following table. Phenotypic Trait Can two individuals with this phenotype have different genotypes? If yes, give an example of the different genotypes.

Has wings Has 5 toes

Has no freckles

8a. What is epistasis? (See link for help: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistasis#/media/File:Epistatic_hair.png)

8 b. Describe an example of epistasis in this simulation.

8c. Explain the molecular basis for this example of epistasis. (Hint: Review the top of page 1.) 9

. Phenotypic traits are influenced by environment as well as genotype. Propose an environmental factor that might influence phenotypic traits as the baby dragon grows up, e.g. how long the neck and tail grow or how dark the freckles in the skin become.