ARTICLE  Holmes, Brewin and Hennessy (2004)

Starting phrase— Generally, for all 3 experiments the 2 mechanisms investigated are verbally accessible memory (VAM) and SAM. Investigate this they use “the stressful film paradigm”.


Then for all 3 experiments explain methods and mechanism.

For all 3 experiments they explain mechanism with – page 5—“Together, the theory and empirical findings suggest that selective interference with the VAM and SAM systems in individuals watching a trauma film should have opposite effects on the sub- sequent development of intrusive memories (i.e., increased vs. decreased intrusions, respectively). Our predictions are tested in three experiments.” –paraphrase it,  -> it is in page 5 as a general mechanism.

As a general method—page 5—“ The first experiment compares the effects of a dissociation task with visuospatial tapping, predicting that they will have opposite effects on memory intrusion. The second ex- periment tests the prediction that varying the degree of visuospatial load, through simple tapping, practiced complex tapping, and unpracticed complex tapping, will progressively lead to greater reductions in intrusive images. The third experiment provides a test of the hypothesis that interfering with encoding into the VAM system (using a concurrent verbal counting task) will increase intrusive memory development. This experiment also uses a non- competing verbal condition predicted to have the opposite effect on intrusions.” -> paraphrase it.


Then explain each of the experiment for this article.

Experiment 1method:Participants initially went through a screen for their ability to dissociate using a dot-staring task. Those who passed the screen continued to an experimental phase in which they were assigned to watch a trauma film under one of three concurrent task conditions. Measures were collected pre- and postfilm. Participants recorded their intrusions of the film in a diary for 1 week and then returned for a follow-up session.” -> paraphrase this.

Insight experiment 1– page 9–  “The results indicate that increases in peritraumatic state dissociation may be related to intrusion development over and above attempts to manipulate dissociation experimentally.”  (paraphrase it)

A major finding from this experiment was that participants who engaged in a visuospatial tapping task during the trauma film reported experiencing fewer intrusive memories of the film in the subsequent week than those who had no such task. This replicates the effect found by Brewin and Saunders (2001), using improved methodology. The reduction in intrusions was not accounted for by the task protecting against negative mood or distress caused by the film (cf. Davies & Clark, 1998).” –