BIOL-113 MIDTERM-2 (2015 FALL)


1. What is the substance required to cleave the vector DNA during recombinant DNA technology?

DNA ligase



DNA helicase

restriction enzymes

2. Anatomical features that are fully developed and functional in one group of organisms but reduced and functionless in a similar group are termed






3. All living organisms share characteristics such as: DNA, the molecule that passes information between generations, metabolic processes like glycolysis and the ability to utilize specific energy sources. This is thought to be due to

Biological evolution

The presents of transitional forms

Limited environmental stimuli

Prezygotic isolation

Postzygotic isolation

4. NADPH and ATP are used in the

cyclic electron pathway.

citric acid cycle.

Calvin cycle reactions.

light reactions.

noncyclic electron pathway.

5. Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of






6. Mendel carried out most of his research with

guinea pigs.


fruit flies.

pea plants.


7. During what stage of meiosis do sister chromatids separate from each other?

metaphase II

metaphase I


anaphase II

anaphase I

8. Chemical reactions that require the input of energy are

kinetic reactions.

exergonic reactions.

catabolic reactions.

endergonic reactions.

coupled reactions.

9. Inbreeding within a population is an example of

natural selection.

gene flow.


genetic drift.

nonrandom mating.

10. Which of the following crosses will yield four phenotypes in a ratio of 9:3:3:1?

RrYy x RrYy

RrYy x rryy


RRYY x rryy

rryy x rryy

11. During crossing-over,

chromatids exchange segments of genetic material.

chromosomes switch poles.

chromosomes become chromatin.

mitosis becomes meiosis.

chromatin becomes chromosomes.

12. Which fossil evidence is considered an intermediate between reptiles and birds?






13. Which is NOT true according to Mendel’s law of segregation?

Fertilization restores the presence of two factors.

One factor must be dominant and one factor recessive in each individual.

Factors separate from each other during gamete formation.

Each individual contains two factors for each trait.

Each gamete contains one copy of each factor.

14. The _____ indicates the gene combination of an individual.






15. In humans, the diploid number of chromosomes is





16. Which of the following crosses will yield only homozygous recessive offspring?

RrYy x rryy


rryy x rryy

RRYY x rryy

RrYy x RrYy

17. Alternative forms of a gene that influence the same trait and are found at the same location in homologous chromosomes are called

incomplete dominance.





18. Which of the following is NOT correct concerning the law of independent assortment?

It follows the observation that all maternal chromosomes end up in the egg.

It is based upon the process of meiosis.

It was the second law of heredity established by Mendel.

Each pair of factors separates independently.

All possible combinations of factors can occur in the gametes.

19. Which evidence for evolution uses impressions of plants and animals pressed into sedimentary rock?

comparative anatomy

fossil record

comparative embryology

comparative biochemistry


20. What lines up at the metaphase plate during metaphase II of meiosis and metaphase of mitosis?

each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids for meiosis, each chromosome composed of one sister chromatid for mitosis

each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids for meiosis, homologous chromosomes for mitosis

homologous chromosomes for meiosis, each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids for mitosis

each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids at both

homologous chromosomes at both

21. Mass extinctions

are the result of humans exploiting wildlife and using pesticides.

require life to evolve again from protocells.

occurred in cycles when organisms fail to evolve.

have occurred about 4 or 5 times in fossil record, due in some cases to catastrophic changes.

are the result of humans damaging the natural environment.

22. The ____ is the total number of alleles of all the gene loci in all the members of a population.

genetic drift

gene flow

adaptive radiation


gene pool

23. Africa, Asia, South America, and Antarctica share some patterns of primitive (fossil) plants and early reptiles, but do not have similar mammal populations. This therefore

suggests that the earlier plants and reptiles evolved while continents were joined but mammals radiated into diverse groups after separation.

is an unsolved puzzle probably due to the random nature of biological evolution.

suggests that the mammals evolved earlier while continents were joined but plants and reptiles radiated into diverse groups after separation.

suggests that a pattern of land bridges existed at different times in geological history.

casts serious doubts upon the theory of continental drift and fused land masses.

24. Which molecules are the reactants or substrates for aerobic respiration?

lactate and oxygen

glucose and carbon dioxide

oxygen and glucose

glucose and water

carbon dioxide and water

25. When does apoptosis occur?

during injury repair

during mitosis

during meiosis

during interphase

during development

26. A cross that involves two traits is called a ______ cross.






27. What are the products of photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide and carbohydrate

water and oxygen

oxygen and carbohydrate

water and carbon dioxide

carbohydrate and water

28. The organisms examined by Darwin on the Galapagos Islands that were most important in his development of the theory of natural selection were

monkeys and armadillos.


rabbits and hares.



29. In humans, widow’s peak (W) is dominant over straight hairline (w). If a heterozygous male marries a female with a straight hairline, what percent of their children can be expected to have widow’s peak?

can’t be determined





30. Synapsis occurs during what stage of meiosis?

anaphase I

metaphase II

prophase I

anaphase II

telophase II

31. Where does glycolysis take place within the cell?

endoplasmic reticulum


mitochondrial matrix


mitochondrial membrane

32. The raw material for evolutionary change is

natural selection.


gene flow.

nonrandom reproduction.

genetic drift.

33. In which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up in the center of the cell?






34. Wherever an evolutionary tree branches, there is assumed to be

a common ancestor.

a suddenly new species.

an embryo only.

always a living member of that group.

no living member of that group.

35. Where within the cell is ATP built up?


Golgi body


endoplasmic reticulum


36. During what stage of mitosis does the nuclear envelope disappear and the chromosomes become distinct?






37. Which of the following conditions does NOT contribute to evolution?

unchanging environmental conditions

natural selection

gene flow

genetic drift


38. The treatment of a disorder by inserting genetic material into an organism is called



chorionic villi sampling.

genetic profiling.

gene therapy.

39. Enzymes are specific. This means that they

have a preferred pH.

have a particular substrate.

are only in certain cells.

have a preferred temperature.

require ATP and cofactors in order to work properly.

40. Which of the following is true about natural selection?

It acts on genotypes rather than phenotypes.

It always selects for forms that are a mutated variation.

It assures the survival of each fit individual.

On average, it favors the survival of young with adaptive characteristics.

It always selects for more complex forms.

41. When creating transgenic bacteria, plants, and animals

any cell may be used as long as is does not have a cell wall.

only eggs may be used for animals while and cell may be used for plants and bacteria.

only eggs may be used for plants and animals while any cell may be used for bacteria.

only eggs may be used to create any transgenic organism.

transgenic bacteria are created first and then used to create transgenic plants and animals.

42. When only a few individuals survive unfavorable times, thereby losing the majority of genotypes in the next generation, it is called

natural selection.

a founder effect.

vestigial structures.

industrial melanism.

a bottleneck effect.

43. According to the evolutionary theory, which statement is NOT true?

Evolution explains the diversity of life.

Diversity occurs because various living things are adapted to different ways of life.

All living things are NOT descended from a common ancestor.

Evolution explains the unity of life.

All living things share the same fundamental characteristics.

44. In humans, brown eyes (B) is a simple dominant trait over blue eyes (b). A brown-eyed woman whose child is blue-eyed would have the genotype






45. What is the term used to describe the accumulation of small changes in the gene pool of a species over time?

directional selection


founder effect

mutation rate

genetic drift

46. Which of the following is not a use of DNA fingerprinting?

Paternity tests

Identifying Superbowl footballs

Determining a predisposition to cancer

All of the above are uses of DNA fingerprinting

Forensic analysis

47. What are the two sets of reactions for photosynthesis?

Calvin cycle reactions, citric acid cycle

light reactions, glycolysis

light reactions, Calvin cycle reactions

glycolysis, citric acid cycle

electron transport chain, light reactions

48. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that are used as crop plants to feed humans are able to express new traits because

they have been injected with these new molecules and there is no natural method for them to be degraded in the organism.

they grow bacteria on the surface of leaves or roots that produce these molecules.

their normally occurring molecules have been modified to serve different functions.

they now contain genes from another organism that code for these molecules.

they are hybrid plants that contain new alleles.

49. ________ uses an electrical field to separate DNA fragments based upon their length.

DNA digestion


Gel electrophoresis

DNA cloning

Polymerase chain reaction

50. Transgenic crop plants have been created that do all of the following except

are resistant to insect damage.

produce human hormones or antibodies.

grow two kinds of crops, like the pomato which produces both tomatoes and potatoes.

are resistant to herbicides.

transgenic plants have been produced that can do all of the things listed.

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