Topic 2 – Essay 1 Relying on the information you learned in Chapter 5, explain what is meant by the term “conditioning” and describe and distinguish between classical and operant conditioning. Finally, discuss how research into the effects of biology and cognition on conditioning has changed psychology’s understanding of the conditioning process. General Instructions for Essays There will be two essays assigned for this course. Each essay must be two to three pages long. There are three topics assigned for each essay. Students may choose any of the three topics on which to write. Each essay has a specific due date and time. The due dates and deadlines for submission are indicated on the Course Schedule. Essays will not be accepted after the specified due date and time except under the circumstances described in the course syllabus. Topics for the essays can be found on the Writing Assignments Page. Form and Formatting Instructions Essays must be word-processed and saved either as a Microsoft Word Document (.doc or .docx file extension) or in Rich Text Format (.rtf file extension). They must be double-spaced and have one-inch margins all around (top, bottom, left, and right). Font size must be 12 points. A standard font such as Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman should be used. Do not use a title page. Place your name and the title at the top of the first page. Indent the first line of each paragraph five spaces. Do not “double-double space” between paragraphs. Citations and References You are required to cite the information that you use in writing these essays using APA style. You will find an APA Style Guide in the Writing Assignments Module. Failure to properly acknowledge and cite such information constitutes plagiarism because it implies that you (the author of the essay) are the source of the information when, in fact, it comes from another source which deserves credit for the information. Sources The only source you are required to use for your essays is the textbook. However, you may also include other scholarly psychological sources if you wish. Other such sources can include the online information found in this course, other psychology textbooks, articles for scholarly psychological journals, and other sources written by psychological professionals or scholars, or professionals and scholars in other closely related professions and fields of study (such as psychiatry, counseling, social work, and sociology). Critical Thinking One of the criteria on which the essays will be graded is the use of critical thinking. Critical thinking is discussed in Learning Module 1 of the course and also in your textbook