This section of English 102 focuses specifically on using reading, writing, argumentation, and research to connect ideas found literature in order define abstract aspects of the human experience. Students will write a ten page research paper, in which they must define an abstract humanistic attribute using at least two primary sources read in class, at least one primary source of a reading outside class, and at least five secondary sources. Students should choose two of the following pieces of literature for two of their three primary sources: Heinlein – From Starship Troopers.pdf Heaney – Beowulf Attacks the Dragon.pdf Shakespeare – King Henry IV Part 1.pdf Zelazny – A Rose for Ecclesiastes.pdf Stone – That Leviathan Whom Thou Hast Made.pdf Armstrong – The Spiral Staircase.pdf Cohen – Becoming Adolf.pdf Students will bring an additional work of literature to their research as their third primary source. Additional secondary sources (at least five) should be used to complete the research. Students should use scholarly, peer reviewed sources whenever possible. Popular and non-peer reviewed sources may be used to gain background information about the subject, but should not be used in the paper. The project will be ten pages in length (this does not include the works cited page). Generally, papers that fall short of the page requirement need more research and often also fall short of the source requirements. This paper must follow MLA guidelines for formatting and citing sources. Failure to do so may result in a zero on the project. Please see the Purdue OWL for MLA guidelines. Students should write with the following considerations: Voice: Can the reader tell who you are by your voice? Does your voice engage and hold the attention of the reader? Does your voice distract from the tone or clarity of your writing? Tone: Does your essay have a clear tone? Is the tone of your writing appropriate for your subject and academic writing? Does your writing avoid contractions, weak “you” statements, and works or phrases that do not belong in academic writing? Clarity: Does your essay have a structure? Does it have a clear introduction, middle, and conclusion? Do you provide enough concrete details for your readers? Did you use strong verbs and avoid weak verb constructions? Is your narrative confusing or have parts that are not fully developed? Focus or Thesis Statement: Does your essay have a clear thesis statement? Is your thesis statement sufficiently narrow? Does your thesis outline the points you plan on covering in the body of your essay? Sources: Do you use MLA in-text citations? Do you use a MLA works cited page? Are your sources credible and scholarly? Support for Position: Does your essay contain enough textual evidence to support your thesis statement? Do you anticipate your readers’ concerns and address them? Do you include a counter argument? Closing Paragraph: Does your closing paragraph leave the reader with a solid understanding of your position? Does your conclusion restate your thesis statement? Organization: Is your argument presented in a logical order? Do you use transitions? Are your ideas easy to follow?