Explain William K. Clifford’s parable of the shipowner and explain what conclusion Clifford uses the parable to illustrate. Next, explain whether Clifford is a consequentialist (utilitarian) – does Clifford believe that the shipowner’s belief was immoral because the ship sank? What would Clifford say about the shipowner’s belief had the ship not sank? Make sure to explain how your answer entails that Clifford is, or is not, a consequentialist. Finally, give three reasons offered by Clifford in support of the claim that “it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence”.
Explain why Judith Jarvis Thomson grants the opponent of abortion the claim that personhood begins at the moment of conception. Then present the “Extreme View” against abortion. After that, explain how Thomson seeks to undermine the Extreme View. To do so, first explain why Thomson thinks a mother should be able to perform an abortion on herself when her life is threatened; then explain why Thomson thinks it would be permissible for a third-party to perform an abortion on the mother when her life is threatened. Finally, explain why Thomson supports abortion rights in cases where the mother’s life is not threatened using the Ailing Violinist parable. Make sure in your answer to explain the distinction between having a right to life and having a right to life at someone else’s expense.