In one well-known study on empathy, participants were required to watch a confederate (“elaine”) receive electric shocks. they were told either that they had to watch her receive 10 full trials of sho

In one well-known study on empathy, participants were required to watch a confederate (“elaine”) receive electric shocks. they were told either that they had to watch her receive 10 full trials of shocks, or that they could leave after watching the first 2 trials only. they were also told that their values and interests were similar to elaine’s (similarity group), or that their values and interests were different from elaine’s (non-similarity group). after the first two trials were completed, participants were told that elaine was unusually upset by the shocks due to a negative childhood experience related to electricity. participants were asked whether they would be willing to switch places with elaine. in this study, the 10-trial versus 2-trial instruction was designed as a manipulation of _____, and the similarity versus non-similarity information was meant to be a manipulation of