The policy memo will be addressed to a client—a head of a government agency or international institution, or a policy strategist at a firm or NGO—and will briefly summarize the state of play of existing policy, outline the policy options, and explain how to choose among them. The idea behind these memos is not to do extensive additional research but to synthesize what you have learned about the case into a very compact space and to explain policy choices. Use the theory of reading to analyze the two cases. Key questions: What are the goals of different electoral systems and what are the tradeoffs? How are different incentives shaped by the voting rules? Is one type better than others? Why?