QuestionsResearch may be used as a diagnostic tool to provide information about what is happening in the environment.Researchers who have strong opinions about the subject of a study are likely to do a better job of conducting the research.When a decision must be made about a specific real-life problem, we would conduct ____ research.Experiments hold the greatest potential for establishing cause-and-effect relationships.Which of the following statements concerning research design is true?A. Research design provides a framework that guides data collection.objectives.C. Research design characteristics are indirectly determined by the information needs of the decision maker.D. All of the statements are true.According to the textbook, which of the following is least likely to be considered unethical?A. A telemarketer selling carpeting begins the telephone sales call by saying he or she is conducting a survey about carpeting.procedure in the proposal was considered too expensive, so an alternative sampling technique was used.C. Researchers do not tell respondents to a survey sponsoring the survey; that is they maintain a discreet silence about the sponsor of a survey by avoiding the issue.D. The researcher who identifies the most likely prospects for a new photocopying machine passes the names of these people to the sales manager.Which of the following is not a common problem with secondary data?A. outdated informationB. variation in definition of termsC. differing units of measurementD. takes too long to collectE. All of the above are common problems.High-cost, low standardization of questioning and limited geographic dispersion are disadvantages characteristic of ______ surveys.A. telephoneB. personal interviewC. mailD. none of the above.A hypothesis is a statement of fact about the nature of the world.Speed of data collection, lower costs, and convenience are the major advantages of quota sampling.Decisions must be made about several basic elements of an experiment. One of these issues isA. selection and measurement of the dependent variable.B. manipulation of the extraneous variable(s).C. control over the dependent variable.D. selection of assignment of extraneous variables.E. all of the above.A measurement task that requires respondents to estimate the magnitude of a characteristic or quality that a brand, store, or object possesses is known asA. rankingB. ratingC. sortingD. a choice technique“Hertz is #1, Avis is #2” implies _____ data.A. nominalB. ordinalC. intervalD. ratioE. The statement implies nothing about data.The extent to which a measurement is free from random error is a measurement ofA. validity.B. reliability.C. predictive accuracy.D. degrees of freedom.E. systematic validation.The order of questions in a survey is a potential source of bias.Before a questionnaire can be constructed, the researcher must considerA. the analytical techniques and data analysis to be used.B. the communication medium of data collection.C. the type of information needed.D. all of the above.E. none of the above.a) $30,000 – 50,000; b) $50,000 – 70,000; c) $70,000 – 100,000; d) $100,000 – 140,000Which of the following is not a valid criticism?A. Categories are not mutually exclusive.B. List of alternatives is not collectively exhaustive.C. Two questions are being asked as one.D. All are valid criticisms.When a researcher limits a sample to a group of his or her personal friends in order to minimize non-response error, the sample is referred to as ______________ sampleWhich of the following sample types would allow a researcher to assess the degree of random sampling error most accurately?A. convenienceB. judgmentC quotaD. snowballE. stratifiedEXTRA CREDIT (1/2 pt each):NoA. is a double-barreled question.B. has a built-in assumption.C. is a counterbiasing statement.D. all of the above.2.The concept of “demand characteristics” refers to aspects of an experiment that provide _______________________ about the experimenter’s hypothesis.