Schwartz’s view suggests that the ability to do otherwise is . not necessary for free will. necessary for free will. only applicable to a…

25. Schwartz’s view suggests that the ability to do otherwise is . . .

A. not necessary for free will.

B. necessary for free will.

C. only applicable to a compatibilist view of free will.

D. All of the above

E. None of the above

26. Schwartz showed that overcoming OCD through his 4-step cognitive behavioral therapy could bring about . . .

A. no visible changes in the brain.

B. changes in the circuitry of the orbitofrontal cortex.

C. All of the above

D. None of the above

27. David Hume’s view of free will . . .

A. is defined in terms of the fulfillment of reason.

B. is defined in terms of the fulfillment of desires.

C. is defined in terms of the fulfillment of belief.

D. is defined in terms of the fulfillment of humor.

E. None of the above

28. Sartre argued for the position that . . .

A. essence precedes existence.

B. existence precedes essence.

C. existence is an illusion.

D. All of the above

E. None of the above

29. Compatibilism . . .

A. implicitly affirms alternative possibilities at any given time as a requirement of free will.

B. implicitly denies alternative possibilities at any given time as a requirement of free will.

C. all of the above

D. None of the above.

30. Aristotle claims that virtue is . . . 

A. what rocks dream about.

B. an illusion.

C. not possible.

D. All of the above

E. None of the above

31. In Plato’s Republic, Thrasymachus presents . . .

A. an argument against the immoralist definition of justice.

B. the rooster-chicken analogy as a way of defending the immoralist definition of justice.

C. the chrysalis-butterfly analogy as a way of advocating justice.

D. All of the above

E. None of the above

32. Aristotle argues that virtue is . . .

A. linked to dry humor

B. linked to physical prowess

C. linked to clothing style

D. All of the above

E. None of the above

33. For Plato, a central characteristic of mental health is . . .

A. acquiring material goods and political power.

B. satisfying all appetites.

C. a unified body.

D. a unified soul.

E. None of the above

34. The parable of Gyges’ Ring implies that . . .

A. people are inclined toward good.

B. people are inclined toward believing in myths about moral goodness.

C. people are not inclined toward anything.

D. people are inclined toward evil.

E. None of the above 

35. Aristotle taught that intellectual virtues . . . 

A. require a diet of oats and wild honey.

B. are the product of luck alone.

C. are gained through physical exercise.

D. require growth and experience.

All of the above  

36. Kant did NOT teach the following:

A. Moral duties are discovered by reason alone.

B. A categorical imperative is a moral obligation that is unconditionally binding on all     

    people at all times.

C. Always treat humanity as an end in itself and never as a means only.

D. Act only on those maxims that can become a law relative to one’s culture.

37. Kant taught the following:  

A. Always treat humanity as a means and never as an end in itself. 

B. Act only on those maxims that promote your selfish desires.

C. Eat, drink, and be merry; for tomorrow we die.

D. Take actions only if they promote happiness to the smartest in society.

E. None of the above

38. Schwartz argues that . . .

A. free will is nothing but a brain process.

B. free will is reducible to a bodily process.

C. physicalism is true.

D. All of the above

E. None of the above

39. Kant taught the following:

A. The only thing good in the world without qualification is a good will.

B. The only thing good in the world without qualification is fermented grape juice.

C. The only thing good in the world without qualification is a good character.

D. The only thing good in the world without qualification is a good intellect.

E. None of the above

40. Schwartz argues that . . .  

A. free will can influence certain parts of the brain, such as the circuitry in the orbitofrontal cortex. 

B. free will is an illusion.

C. free will is constituted by and reducible to brain events.

D. All of the above

E. None of the above

41. Aristotle argues that . . .

A. there is a connection between developing good character states and virtuous living.

B. there is no connection between developing good character states and virtuous living.

C. All of the above

D. None of the above

42. In the Republic, Plato argues that . . .

A. a person is fundamentally a soul.

B. a person is fundamentally an organism.

C. a person is fundamentally an alien.

D. None of the above

43.  According to Plato, the primary mode of mental activity in the moral development of a young soul is . . .

A. imagination 

B. sensation  

C. none of the above

44. Aristotle maintains that soul is explained entirely in terms of …  

A. higher level states of the brain                                           

B. lower level activities of distributed neurons 

C. sensory organs

D. information transmissions to our brains from some super-intelligent, extra-terrestrial

    being.  

E. None of the above

45. According to Plato, mental health is understood in terms of . . . 

A. the unity of soul.

B. forms that exist in the physical space of behavior.

C. the unity of body.

D. all of the above

E. none of the above.