STUDY GUIDE_FINAL EXAM Considerations while taking the exam . Go slowly. Think about each answer before writing it out. For essay questions, write…

Hadean Eon

Achean Eon

Proterozoic Eon

Phanerozoic Eon

Ediacaran fauna

Fossil

Burgess Shale

permineralization

The Principle of Superposition

Index Fossil

Queen of Gems

Review terms from rest of course

General terms

Deuterostome

Protostome

Bilateral symmetry

Radial symmetry

Hydrostatic skeleton

Coelom

Gonochoristic/dioecious

Hemaphroditic

Filter feeding

Deposit feeding

Ecdysis

Counter current exchange

Parthenogenesis

Life cycle

Exoskeleton

Eutely

Pharynx

lecithotrophic

planktotrophic

mucus

Taxon specific terms

(sponges)

Spicule

Choanocyte

Pynacocyte

Archaeocyte

(cnidaria)

Medusa

Polyp

Mesentery

Nematocysts

(flatworms)

Flame cell

Proglottid

(roundworms

Amphids

Caenorhabditis elegans

(Arthropods)

Compound eye

Chitin

Chelicerae

Pedipalps

Hemimetabolous

Holometabolous

Sclerotization

Ommatidia

Nauplius

Tagmatization

Tracheole system

Autotomize

Malpighian tubules

Silk

setae

(molluscs)

ctenidia

Radula

Chromatophores

Siphon

Bivalve hinge ligament

Prismatic layer

Odontiphore

Operculum

torsion

rhinophores

Ink Sac

Mantle

Periostracum

Prismatic layer

Siphuncle

(Annelids)

Parapodia

phygidium

chaetae

Prostomium

COURSE TAXONOMY

PHYLUM

      CLASS

            ORDER

Porifera

Cnidaria

      Hydrozoa

      Scyphozoa

      Anthozoa

      Cubozoa

Porifera

      Demospongiae

      Hexactinellida

      Calcarea

Ctenophora

Platyhelminthes

      Turbellaria

      Digenea

      Cestoda

Nemertea

Nematoda

Rotifera

Annelida

      Polychaeta

      Oligochaeta

      Hirudinoidea

      Echiura

Sipuncula

Mollusca

      Polyplacophora

      Gastropoda

      Bivalvia

      Cephalopoda

Brachiopoda

Bryozoa

Arthropoda

   Chelicerata (Subphylum)

      Merostomata

      Arachnida

            Araneida

            Acari

            Scorpionida

   Mandibulata (Subphyllum)

      Crustacea

            Decapoda

            Isopoda

            Amphipoda

            Copepoda

      Cirripedia (sub-class of Crustacea)

      Hexapoda

      Myriapoda

Echinodermata

      Crinoidea

      Asteroidea

      Ophiurodea

      Echinoidea

      Holothuroidea

Chordata

Urochordata (sub-phylum)

      Ascidiacea

      Thaliacea

      Larvacea

Cephalocordata (sub-phylum)

Example short Answer Questions for last third of semester (include material from quiz 3 study guide here!

If the age of the earth were put into a single calendar year, when would the Cambrian explosion have occurred?

Why was it unlikely for life to evolve during the Hadean Eon?

What are the dominant fossils from the Archean Eon?

The existence of worm tracks (trace fossils) in the early Vendian period 60 Million years before the Cambrian period indicates that animals existed and already possessed a considerable number of animal innovations by this time.  Or simply, what does the presence of trace fossils indicate? Please Explain.

Vertical borrows (a kind of trace fossil) only occurs after the start of the Cambrian. What is the likely reason for this?

What trophic group is lacking from the Ediacara fauna found in the Vendian Period

Why was the Burgess Shale an important fossil find?

The Cambrian period is described as a period of high morphological disparity in animal life forms but low in diversity.  What does this mean?

During the extinctions of the mid to late Cambrian, were the best animal body plans preserved? Why should we not presume this?

The capacity of Biomineralization becomes widespread across many groups of animals around 530-520 MYA What explains this?

The way an animal body undergoes development is determined by what?

The Hox 1 gene found at the beginning of the Hox tandem array is likely to be expressed in what part of the developing animal embryo?

Why is photosynthesis and respiration the true yin and yang of our world?

What are the limitations of Paleontology as it relates to knowing about the biology of animals?

Why do fossils rarely form in Erosional environments? How does this affect the Fossil Record?

Based on the fossil record of life we know that most species are ____________ .

What are potential vectors of animal introduction?

(potential questions that requires knowledge of information presented earlier in the course)

List and discuss 4 key evolutionary innovations that have led to the ecological success of particular animal groups?

Name 5 classes of invertebrate that propagate asexually to form interconnected colonies.  For each discuss the extent (or lack) of specialization among individuals within a colony.  Why would such specialization among connected individuals evolve? What is the difference between clonality and coloniality? Why is this distinction important?

How is the lophophore of a Brachiopod analagous to the ctenidium of a bivalve?

The significance of the larval stage to the life history of an animal differ between terrestrial and marine/aquatic ecosystems?

Over the course of the semester you witnessed a remarkable diversity of animal life forms.  Certain reoccurring numbers are found within the symmetry and/or patterning of body morphologies.  Relate (provide and example) and discuss the “significance” of the following numbers to invertebrate diversity.

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

Displayed below is a schematic of land and tropical marine ecosystems.  For each of the 5 habitats that are numbered, list an invertebrate CLASS that would most likely be common/abundant constituent AND justify your answer (i.e. what adaptations make this group particularly successful).  There may be more than one acceptable answer for each habitat, choose only one, but do not use the same Class twice.

#1. Terrestrial soil; #2) mangrove forest; #3) benthos of back water lagoon, #4) coral reef; #5) open water deep pelagic zone.

5

4

3

1

2

What happens to community diversity with increased eutrification, or removal of a predator?  (Below is a schematic depicting the influence of eutrophication/sedimentation on benthic animal communities)

Evolutionary reconstruction.  Each thick hash mark corresponds to a trait that unifies all the organisms within a phylum (or group of phyla) and distinguishes them biologically from all other animals.  For each hash mark, provide one major feature (there is potentially more than one correct answer) and briefly describe the significance of it.

Short Essays:

When did oxygen reach concentrations similar to today’s levels (~20% of our atmosphere)? How did high O2 levels directly and indirectly support the evolution and success of animals?

Name 3 phyla where animals propagate asexually to form interconnected colonies.  For each discuss the extent (or lack) of specialization among individuals within a colony.  Why does functional specialization evolve?  Why are there NO colonial representatives from the phylum Arthropoda/ Nematoda?

What are 4 adaptations that have allowed animals to overcome physiological challenges (e.g. fluid balance, reproduction, food acquisition) associated with terrestrial life. Explain the significance of each.  What phyla have representative groups that have successfully colonized land?

Mucus is very important to animals.  Describe 3 specific examples from at least 3 different phyla of the functional importance of snot!

Cilia are very important to animals.  Describe 4 specific examples from at least 4 phyla of the functional importance of moving “hairs”!

It was once thought that most of the unusual morphologies that distinguish the major animal lineages (i.e. phyla) resulted from the evolution of unique or novel genes.  It is now realized that the wondrous diversity of body forms in the animal kingdom probably result from minor modifications to conserved developmental pathways and genetic regulatory cascades.  Explain the basis behind this stunning realization. (See paper by Valentine et al. 1999 in the supplemental readings for help)

Why are certain species invasive after being introduced to a new region while other introduced animals fail to persist?  What happens to these successful invaders after they become established?

What are essential ingredients for the mericulture of invertebrates for monetary gain?

Why are most paleontologists invertebrate zoologists?

What biases influence the Fossil Record of life?