1. The Directory was created A. in immediate reaction to the execution of Robespierre. B. to extend the Reign of Terror. C. by the Committee of Public Safety. D. following the period of Thermidorian reaction. 2. James Watt greatly improved the Newcomen engine by A. advocating coal burning over water power. B. replacing coal with coke. C. inventing the puddling process. D. adding a separate condenser. 3. One goal of Zheng He’s expeditions was to suppress piracy mainly from A. Japan. B. China. C. Korea. D. Philippines. 4. Following the Red Turban Rebellion of 1351, Zhu Yuanzhang A. joined the rebellion. B. ascended to power by crushing the rebellion. C. established a base at Beijing. D. increased taxes on the poor. 5. What was distinctive about the American Declaration of Independence? A. It extended traditional English rights to all mankind. B. It extended sovereignty to a distinct specified territory. C. It extended sovereignty specifically to Native Americans. D. It extended traditional English rights to all the American colonists. 6. The Mines Act of 1842 had the effect of A. introducing steam-driven pumps in the mines. B. weakening the concept of separate spheres based on gender. C. prohibiting underground work for women and girls. D. ending child labor in coal mines. 7. All of the following events were directly related to the eventual advent of British textile factories, except A. the water frame. B. the growth of urbanization. C. the spinning jenny. D. the putting-out system. 8. During the great expansion of global trade in the nineteenth century, the conquest of distance was associated with all of the following, except A. the Panama Canal. B. railroads. C. aircraft. D. steamships. 9. It is the case that Taizu A. was a patient and practical ruler. B. greatly admired men of learning. C. sometimes humiliated men of learning. D. could not be controlled by the empress. 10. In the eighteenth century, the concept of liberty was, above all, a demand for A. national sovereignty. B. economic equality. C. universal suffrage. D. individual human rights. 11. The Combination Acts of 1799 were aimed specifically at A. regulating artisan crafts. B. outlawing unions and strikes. C. obstructing initiatives proposed by Robert Owen. D. creating a single large union. 12. The German Reichstag did all of the following after Bismarck’s resignation in 1890 except A. pass laws that legalized socialist political activity. B. pass laws to aid workers. C. yield central power to Kaiser William II. D. establish the world’s first social security system. 13. Under the Tokugawa peace, daimyo A. were prohibited from coining money. B. castle building was encouraged. C. were heavily engaged in foreign trade. D. social status increased. 14. Which of the following was the first western country to grant women’s suffrage in 1914? A. Prussia B. France C. Norway D. Russia 15. All of the following were factors favoring British industrialization, except A. increased agricultural production. B. rising urbanization and higher wages. C. a decline in domestic demand for manufactured goods. D. immediate or canal access to ocean ports. 16. In 1789, the National Assembly revoked the privileges of the aristocracy. This occurred in reaction to A. a peasant uprising. B. Louis XVI’s withdrawal of troops from Paris. C. discontent among the poor people of Paris. D. the storming of the Bastille. 17. With respect to the ascendance of the Manchu Dynasty, what was the role of General Wu Sangui? A. He opened the Great Wall to admit the Manchu forces. B. He led Ming forces against the Manchu. C. He defended the Great Wall against the Manchu horde. D. He formed the military units known as banners. 18. Regarding the Napoleonic Code, which of the following statements is false? A. It was intended as a bargain with the French middle class. B. It was intended as a measure of reassurance for the aristocracy. C. It assured the political equality of all adult males. D. It assured the absolute security of wealth and private property. 19. Under Muhammad Ali and his grandson Ismail, the economic underpinning of modernization in Egypt was A. the production of manufactured goods. B. controlling the Suez Canal. C. emulating European bureaucracy. D. exporting cotton. 20. After the defeat of Austria by Prussia in 1866, End of exam A. Franz Joseph gave up in trying the “Germanize” the empire. B. The Magyars became an oppressed minority in Hungary. C. Conflicting nationalist interests were finally settled. D. Franz Joseph was forced to establish a dual monarchy.