The new jim crow incarceration By Michelle Alexander

The paper is for a power and politics class, as you can see i just need to follow the same outline format that it was given thanks! Following the Civil War, the U.S. Government passed three amendments intended to protect the rights of former slaves. The Thirteenth Amendment promised to end…. The Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed citizenship and due process. Due process was the pledge that the national government would intervene if state governments failed to protect their citizens. This protection was intended to specifically apply to ….. The Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed ….. rights to all male citizens. Unfortunately, the 13th Amendment contained a loophole. This loop hole allowed slavery as a….. Southern governments, during the Jim Crow era, took advantage of this loop hole. The Black Codes took advantage of this loop hole because…. Convict labor took advantage of this loophole because…. Prisoner’ almost always fell into debt while in prison. What were they charged for? This debt allowed Southern states to…. Here, we see the tension between Locke’s view on liberty and on property because…. Looking at the 14th Amendment, in Santa Clara County v. Pacific Railroad, the Supreme Court argued the amendment should protect railroads from taxing. This broad interpretation is ironic because…. In U.S. v.Cruikshank, the Supreme Court argued that the 14th Amendment did not allow the national government to prosecute a racist deputy who committed a racist massacre in Colfax, Louisiana. The Supreme Court said that in order to prosecute, they would need…. The effect that this case had on the 14th Amendment was…. In Cruikshank, the Supreme Court interpreted the 14th Amendment narrowly even though the Amendment was passed to protect former slaves. We might conclude…. Thomas Hobbes would NOT approve of this decision because….. Southern governments found several ways to sneak around the 15th Amendment. For example, the poll tax forced people to….. The literacy test made people….. The “grandfather clause” was used as a form of racial code. It said that…. Many of these horrible and tragic practices were changed as result of breakthroughs during the Civil Right movement of the 1950s and 1960s. However, by the 1980s, many conservative had re-branded themselves as being “tough on crime”. Soon, the “war on crime” became the “war on drugs” which directly led to today’s era of mass incarceration. Michelle Alexander argues, that this was not a coincidence. Instead she argues that, similar to the “grandfather” clause, the war on drug was a way of maintaining racism without mentioning race. Regarding the 13th Amendment, today there is no longer formal slavery. However, some people might argue that the modern prison conditions are very much like slavery because the system locks so many people away for so, so long. For example, in states like California, three strike you are out laws….