1. The psychological perspective sees crime primarily as: A) problem behavior B) a violation of a law C) a form of social maladjustment D) an offense against human relationships 2. Which of the following is not one of the three principle components of criminology proposed by Clarence Ray Jeffery? A) Detection of the offender B) The control of crime C) Treatment D) Explanation of crime and criminal behavior 3. Which of the following crime reduction or prevention strategies is most characteristic of the social problems perspective? A) A government-funded initiative to enhance educational opportunities among low-income individuals B) Rewriting state statutes to increase the severity of punishment for violent offenders, such as three-strikes laws C) A move to broaden police powers by increasing the number of exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule D) All of the above E) None of the above 4. A victim may actively contribute to his/her own victimization through the appearance of A) defensiveness. B) exposure. C) defenselessness. D) precipitation. 5. Crime in the United States has been increasing for the past decade. A) True B) False 6. Theoretical criminology focuses on describing crime and its occurrence. A) True B) False 7. The social problems perspective holds that crime is: A) chosen by individual perpetrators. B) not going to be solved by social programs. C) a manifestation of underlying social problems. D) none of the above 8. The thermic law of crime was developed by A) André Michel Guerry. B) Adolphe Quételet. C) Cesare Beccaria. D) Thomas Robert Malthus. 9. Hate crimes are most commonly committed by A) black males. B) black females. C) white males. D) white females. 10. According to the NCVS, members of which racial group experience the highest rates of violent victimization? A) Hispanics B) Asians C) Whites D) African Americans 11. According to the UCR, the rate of reported forcible rape is highest in the__________ months. A) summer B) spring C) winter D) fall 12. If you unlawfully enter a structure to commit a felony, you have probably committed the crime of A) theft. B) burglary. C) robbery. D) breaking and entering. 13. __________ is legally seen as a true crime of passion. A) a. First-degree murder B) Second-degree murder C) Third-degree murder D) Negligent homicide 14. __________ is the process of turning a simple hypothesis into one that is testable. A) Theory building B) Variable development C) Operationalization D) Hypothesis testing 15. The problem of differential selection can be reduced through the use of A) statistical regression. B) random assignment. C) maturation. D) experimental mortality. 16. Techniques that produce measurable results that can be analyzed statistically are A) quantitative methods. B) tests of significance. C) intersubjectivity. D) qualitative methods. 17. Which of the following research methods produces quantitative data? A) Case studies B) Participant observation C) Controlled experiments D) Life histories E) None of the above 18. A __________ correlation exists between sample size and the degree of confidence we can have in our results. A) curvilinear B) negative C) inverse D) positive 19. Which of the following statements would probably not be made by an adherent of the Classical School? A) I believe that punishment is necessary to deter criminals from committing more crimes. B) I believe that people have certain basic rights and that if the government infringes upon these rights, it should be dissolved. C) I believe that people’s behavior is determined by pain and pleasure. D) I believe that forces beyond a person’s control can affect his or her choice of criminal or noncriminal behavior. 20. According to routine activities theory, which of the following is not necessary for a crime to occur? A) The presence of a suitable target B) The presence of a motivated offender C) The absence of a capable guardian D) The presence of a defensible victim 21. Rational choice theory emphasizes primarily A) rationality and cognition B) pleasure and pain. C) emotionality. D) none of the above 22. According to modern-day advocates of general deterrence, which of the following is not required for punishment to be an effective impediment to crime? A) The punishment must be harsh. B) The punishment must be swift. C) The punishment must be certain. D) The punishment must be severe. E) All of the above. 23. Recidivism rates in the United States reach levels of A) 10% to 20%. B) 40% to 50%. C) 60% to 70%. D) 80% to 90%. 24. Those who advocate __________see the primary utility of punishment as revenge. A) rehabilitation B) deterrence C) Incapacitation D) retribution 25. Which of the following is not one of the fundamental assumptions of biological theories of crime causation? A) A tendency to commit crime may be inherited. B) The brain is the organ of behavior. C) They are all fundamental assumptions of biological theories. D) The basic determinants of criminal behavior are, to a considerable degree, the product of individual choice. 26. The early biological theory that studied the shape of the head to predict criminality was known as A) atavism. B) phrenology. C) physiognomy. D) somatotyping. E) B and C are correct 27. __________ is a concept used by Cesare Lombroso to suggest that criminality is the result of primitive urges that survived the evolutionary process. A) Atavism B) Ectomorph C) Schizoid D) Criminaloid 28. Which of the following foods has not been implicated in the production of criminal violence? A) Coffee B) MSG C) Processed foods D) All of the above may possibly trigger antisocial behavior. 29. The relationship between testosterone and aggressive behavior in young males appears to be moderated by A) the social environment. B) age. C) genetics. D) All of the above. E) None of the above. 30. Sociobiology was introduced by A) Freda Adler. B) James Q. Wilson. C) Edward O. Wilson. D) Arnold L. Lieber. 31. According to Cohn and Rotton, the relationship between temperature and assaults is strongest during the __________ hours. A) morning B) midday C) afternoon D) evening 32. Which of the following is not a fundamental assumption of most psychological theories of crime causation? A) The major motivational element within a person is personality. B) Crimes result from individual choice. C) Defective mental processes may have a variety of causes. D) Normality is generally defined by social consensus. 33. The concept of a psychopathic personality was developed by A) Ivan Pavlov. B) Hans Eysenck. C) Albert Bandura. D) Hervey Cleckley. 34. Which of the following is not one of the characteristics of the psychopathic personality described by Cleckley? A) Superficial charm B) Low intelligence C) Chronic lying D) Unreliability 35. The Freudian concept of a death instinct is called A) Thanatos. B) sublimination. C) ego-ideal. D) neurosis. 36. According to Dollard, violence directed against something or someone who is not the source of the original frustration is known as A) repression. B) displacement. C) catharsis. D) Thanatos. 37. Which of the following is the definition of insanity under the Insanity Defense Reform Act? A) Because of a mental state or psychological condition the defendant was unable to resist committing the act. B) The defendant was suffering from a severe mental disease or defect and as a result was unable to appreciate the nature and quality or the wrongfulness of his acts. C) The defendant’s actions were the product of mental disease or defect. D) The defendant cannot justly be held responsible for the criminal act in the face of any claims of insanity. 38. The ___________ is a standard for judging legal insanity that considers whether a person was not able to resist committing the crime because of his or her mental state. A) Durham rule B) substantial capacity test C) irresistible-impulse test D) Brawner rule 39. The jury determines what constitutes insanity in states that use the A) substantial capacity test. B) Brawner rule. C) irresistible-impulse test. D) Durham rule. 40. According to Thomas and Znaniecki, increased crime rates among recent immigrants to America was due to social A) disorganization. B) conflict. C) pathology. D) ecology. 41. According to general strain theory, strain occurs when which of the following events occurs? A) Someone tries to prevent you from achieving positively valued goals. B) Someone removes negatively valued stimuli. C) Someone presents you with positively valued stimuli. D) Someone helps you to achieve positively valued goals. 42. Conflict theories see __________ as a fundamental cause of crime. A) social disenfranchisement B) the nature of existing power relationships between social groups C) a lack of self control D) the strength of the social bond 43. The concept that crime is defined in terms of the power structures that exist in society exemplifies the __________ perspective. A) political B) sociological C) mainstream D) psychological 44. Official crime rates in the United States are __________; correctional populations are __________. A) decreasing; decreasing B) increasing, decreasing C) decreasing; increasing D) increasing; increasing 45. __________ means that when the same conditions exist, the same results can be expected to follow. A) Intersubjectivity B) Replicability C) Internal validity D) Randomization 46. Which of the following techniques falls into the situational crime control category of reducing the rewards? A) Formal surveillance B) Deflecting offenders C) Facilitating compliance D) Removing targets 47. The idea of viewing cities in terms of concentric zones was developed by A) Robert Park and Ernest Burgess. B) W. I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki. C) Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay. D) Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld 48. The development of favorable attitudes toward the use of violence involves A) learned behavior. B) biological factors. C) psychological traits. D) frustration or strain. 49. Reaction formation was developed by A) Thorsten Sellin. B) David Matza. C) Elijah Anderson. D) Albert Cohen. 50. Some researchers suggest that __________ theories fail to distinguish between the condition of social disorganization and the crimes that this condition is said to cause. A) strain. B) culture conflict. C) ecological. D) subcultural.