//www.linguistics.edu/people/schuh/lx001/Web_Quizzes/Quiz_08/08web.html #8 8.

http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/schuh/lx001/Web_Quizzes/Quiz_08/08web.html #8 8. CHIMPANZEE EXPERIMENTS USING NON-LANGUAGE SYMBOLSHere are two tasks performed by chimpanzees who learned symbolic systems using symbols that did not resemble spoken or signed human words. The first is from Sarah (APS reader, pages 130-131), the second from Lana (APS reader, page 131):The interrogative was introduced with the help of the concepts “same” and “different”. A plastic piece that meant “question mark” was placed between two objects and Sarah had to replace it with either the word for “same” or the word for “different”. (quoted from Scientific American Vol. 227, No. 4, 1972, pages 92-99)I claim that the Sarah experiment revealed more than the Lana experiment about cognitive processes that are used in language by humans.WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING COMPARISONS SUPPORTS THIS CLAIM?a. The Sarah experiment required grouping of words into phrases and phrases into sentences; the Lana experiment required only that words be placed in sequential order.b. The Sarah experiment involved direct manipulation of objects; the Lana experiment involved indirect reference to objects (that is, the buttons were not the objects themselves).c. The Sarah experiment used objects that a chimpanzee would probably not get direct enjoyment from; the Lana experiment resulted in things like food, grooming, or looking at pictures.d. The Sarah experiment involved an understanding of meaning relationships; the Lana experiment required learning to perform a certain sequence of actions to get a reward.e. Neither experiment resulted in any insights into chimpanzee cognition since neither involved a real language